Calendar,  Medieval manuscripts

October from the Hours of Henry VIII

The labors of October; one man is sowing grain, probable winter wheat, while another plows with a two-horse team
Morgan Library MS H.8 fol. 5v detail Hours of Henry VIII Illuminated by Jean Poyer France, Tour ca. 1500

This October labor from the Morgan Library’s Hours of Henry the VIII is actually two labors; on the left, a nattily dressed man in a hat, vest, stockings and shoes is sowing seeds, while on the right another man is ploughing the filed with a team of horses. The crop being sowed is almost certainly a variety of winter wheat, destined to be harvested in summer. The wheat sprouts before the snow falls, and continues, somewhat somnolently, to grow under its winter blanket of snow.

Detail showing from the calendar page for October from the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé, Chantilly, France; MS, 65 f. 10v). C. 1416.

The man with with the seeds is scatteringly, rather than planting in rows. You can see a sack with additional seeds on the ground behind him. He has folded his apron to hold the seeds he scatters. This is strikingly similar to the October calendar image from Très Riches Heures. Both images show the dual labors of sowing winter grain and plowing; both feature a man sowing grain from his apron while a sack with additional seed waits in readiness on the ground nearby. Technically the Très Riches Heures for October show a harrow, but the effect is much the same.