March from the Da Costa Hours

March from the Da Costa hours Morgan Library MS M.399, f.4v Simon Bening (1483/84–1561) Ghent

The typical labors of March include digging and plowing in preparation for spring planting. In this March calendar image from the Morgan Library’s Da Costa Hours (Morgan Library MS M.399, f.4v) a false frame surrounds a full page illumination by Simon Bening.

Outside a castle with a moat and bridge, two workers are digging garden beds with “D” handled spades.To their right, two gentlemen (based on their expensive clothing) on a walkway, one in blue with a hat, and one resplendent in a red furled cape, appear to be conversing with one of the workers, perhaps, giving instructions about the garden beds.

The garden area is enclosed by a low wall, and a hedge. Beyond the garden area, a bridge crosses a moat to the castle. Two people, one of them a woman, are in conversation on the bridge just outside the a door leading inside the castle. Beyond the garden workers, on the path under an arbor, a worker on a ladder is tying vines to the arbor—another of the labors of March. In the distance, just vaguely discernible before the rise of a hill, you can see a plough and team.

This detail from Morgan Library MS M.399, f.4v shows the White Stork nest on the top of the castle chimney

If you look very closely at the castle chimney, there’s a stork’s nest on the on the top of chimney. This is a White Stork, Ciconia ciconia. They’ve been nesting on the roofs and chimneys of Europe for centuries, to the point where the White stork is associated with fertility and luck (hence the folklore about storks delivering babies). White storks return to the same nests, year after year, and the presence of White storks is one of the heralds of spring, even in medieval bestiaries. In recent decades the white stork populations have declined. There has been some success in attracting storks to return in Alsace.

January from the Da Costa Hours

This January calendar image from the Da Costa Hours, MS M.399, fol. 2v from the collection of the Morgan Library features typical January labors; warming by the fire, and feasting.

Image Credit: The Morgan Library
DaCosta Hours MS M.399, fol. 2v.jpg detail from the January Calendar Page

A man and a child are, quite literally, warming their hands by the fire. The man has removed his footwear, a pair of crude sandals that are startlingly reminiscent of flip-flops.

Behind him, a man and a woman are at a small dining table. The woman appears to be serving a leg of goose or other large fowl. The man is holding a covered bowl. The table is already set with a lit candle, two pieces of trencher bread, and a salt cellar.

Above the fireplace a bird in a bird cage hangs on the wall, while on the floor a disgruntled cat has his back to the table. Beyond the dining room scene, a doorway leads to what is presumably the kitchen, with a second fireplace with a vague figure kneeling before it.

The use of the ornamental carved frame and the way the viewer’s eye is drawn towards the second fireplace at the back of the image is an interesting technique.